There’s a powerful new essay in The Chronicle of Higher Education about my least favorite of the many warm fuzzy trends that currently inform (and infect) American education: multiple intelligences. I’ve ranted about this plenty of times: in every college class and inservice day, teachers are beaten with this idea and made to repeat it in order to get or keep their jobs; I just finished a series of classes this year where the curriculum was designed just to make teachers regurgitate praise for this bit of inspirational indoctrination. I can’t overstate how pervasive this is.
The idea: there is a wide variety of “intelligences” out there that influence our learning strengths and weaknesses, and teachers must approach students and classes at several levels to reach all of them. That means creating lessons not just with verbal and mechanical components, but also physical, social-conversational, and even–I kid you not–nature appreciation.
And as every good teacher has known from experience for years, it’s a complete pile of garbage.
As the Chronicle essay points out, this philosophy serves our desire to cherish egalitarian equality–to assert that everyone has talent and value and has hidden but important things to offer the world. Over my years of teaching, I’ve learned the opposite. Continue reading →
I read this fantastic book review this week in the Wall Street Journal (courtesy of a link from Arts & Letters Daily–let’s give credit where credit’s due). Daniel Willingham’s new book, Why Don’t Students Like School?, gives the perspective of a cognitive scientist reviewing the research on the psychology of education. Among his assertions (as reflected in the book review) are:
“When we confront a task that requires us to exert mental effort, it is critical that the task be just difficult enough to hold our interest but not so difficult that we give up in frustration….The challenge, for the teacher, is to design lessons and exercises that will maximize interest and attention and thus make students like school at least a bit more.”
On drilling: “research shows that practice not only makes a skill perfect but also makes it permanent, automatic and transferable to new situations, enabling more complex work that relies on the basics.”
“He advocates teaching old-fashioned content as the best path to improving a student’s reading comprehension and critical thinking.”
And my favorite part, on multiple intelligences: “No one has found consistent evidence supporting a theory describing such a difference. . . . Children are more alike than different in terms of how they think and learn….At some point, no amount of dancing will help you learn more algebra.”
I added a comment to the WSJ article commending this book for deflating the vacuous trends of politically correct schooling today. My professional development classes and meetings drive me bonkers.
This book isn’t in the local library system’s inventory yet; better put in an order.
Now that August is here, I’m thinking about the imminent start of the new school year. For years I’ve watched new teachers start their first year with no clue about how to manage all that gets thrown at them, and I’ve wanted to have something to give them, samizdat style, that lets them in on what really matters, what really works, and what they should studiously ignore. This list represents a first draft effort at some of those ideas.
Minor disclaimer: I’m a high school English teacher in Las Vegas. Therefore, my advice is specifically shaped by that background. To the degree that your experience differs from mine, take these suggestions with a grain of salt. For instance, a new third grade teacher in Vermont may not find this very helpful at all. Still, there should be a few ideas in here that anybody could adapt to their use.
Sit your desk in the front of the room, not the back: the thinking that students will act more maturely if they don’t know if you’re looking at them is wrong–they couldn’t care less. Also, make sure there is enough room by the back wall for you to walk around behind them if you need to. Letting students sit up against the back wall, with no other access than from coming down an aisle, is asking for trouble. “Creative” seating arrangements, except in rare circumstances like class discussions and debates, don’t work: just arrange them in ranks and files.
As the year starts, you’ll be overwhelmed by the paperwork and routines your administrators demand. Ask a couple of people who have been at your campus for a while what’s really important to them: most of that rigmarole is just your administrators doing what their bosses told them to do; they don’t care about it any more than you do. Veterans at your school can tell you what you can safely ignore. You have enough to worry about without jumping through hoops for the office.
Kids will complain all the time, about everything, and there’s not much you can do about it. Learn to screen out the groans, the whining, the muttered complaints of “boring” and “sucks.” Don’t take it personally, because they don’t mean it personally. They’ve been trained by the media and their hormones to automatically hate everything at school. Just go ahead with your lesson anyway. They’ll be fine.
Every time you get a note or an email from a parent thanking you–or saying anything positive at all–print it out and save it in a file where you keep things like your teaching license, contract, and resume. When somebody complains to your supervisor about how you do your job–which, if you’re doing it right, they will–providing copies of such recommendations might come in handy.
All “staff development” and “teacher in service” days exist to promote fads. If you get to attend a really useful one every two years or so, count yourself lucky. You might have to go through the motions of adopting some gimmick presented at one of these meetings, but don’t worry–everybody will forget about it soon enough and go back to normal. Don’t feel bad about skipping some of these if you can get away with it so you can do something actually productive: planning rigorous lessons and editing papers.
I say “editing papers” because it’s more constructive than “grading papers.” Written assignments should be graded like this: Read through them and mark the first five grammatical/mechanical errors. Grade the paper based on that much: the style, voice, organization, and, of course, how far you got in the paper before you found five errors. If five errors appeared within the first half page, make them do it over before you give it a grade.
Resist the urge to try to edit every error in every paper: there just aren’t enough hours in the day. For this reason, short assignments are better than long ones, most of the time. They need drilling, not marathons.
As much as possible, provide written directions for your assignments to students. Oral directions alone are worthless, and just putting them on the board isn’t much better. Students today seem to work best when they have individual copies of instructions, especially if they can keep them. Also, you’ll be surprised by how many students will understand directions better if you simply explain them directly to them, one on one. Even if you only repeat exactly what you just said to the whole class, some kids will “get it” better.
No matter what you teach, read out loud to your class. A lot. Most students these days have so little positive experience with reading, and so little ability to realistically “hear” a story in their heads as they read, that this training is truly essential, at any age. Even for teenagers, move around and use dramatic or silly voices as you read; again, such exaggeration models the kind of active screening of written words that they probably lack. Your poorest readers will want to watch you instead of reading along. I used to be a stickler about making them look at the pages of their book, but I’ve since come to think that this is counterproductive for them.
PC Myth #1: “Don’t worry about the smart kids. They’ll take care of themselves.” If I had a nickel for every time I heard this lie in college, I’d be able to supplement my income enough now to live like my friends in real estate did a few years ago. The problem with this line, and a lot of other popular thinking like it, is that so many teachers subscribe to it now that the smart kids have almost nobody left rooting for them. Their intelligence often gets wasted in our schools, with so few of us willing to challenge and expand it. Please, do not ignore the smartest kids (even though they may be among your most annoying students).
The last five minutes of every class should look like this: a quick review of that day’s content (either by calling on a few kids to answer simple questions about what was done that day, or quick written answers done on scratch paper and handed directly to you as they leave), a reminder about that day’s homework (you should also check at the door that they have this written down somewhere, preferably with a time set aside to work on it), and have them help you pick up the room by checking around their own areas for any garbage or materials that need to be put away. When the bell rings, make a show of inspecting the room, then stand at the door and check their review work (if applicable) and homework reminders as they leave. If it’s not satisfactory, send them back in to do it correctly. They’ll learn quickly enough.
“Inspirational” posters are worthless. Decorate your room with some artwork and some things that reflect your professional personality, but mostly with excellent student work.
Make lots of referrals to counselors. Best case scenario: students get useful advice. Worst case: you can document an intervention that covers your liability if they get in real trouble.
If a student submits work that is illegible, incomplete, or that didn’t follow directions, don’t grade it. Return it to the student and tell them that they have three days to correct/finish it and resubmit it to you, but emphasize that it’s “on them.” You won’t remind them again, and if they fail to turn it in, they will get a zero.
Keep a file of IEP and 504 plans you’re given on students. Highlight the things that you’re obligated to do. Be sure that you implement them enough to justify compliance if the student still fails or if a parent complains. This isn’t meant to be derogatory to those students or parents, but most of these accommodations, in my experience, are unnecessary and ultimately counterproductive. Most of the useful ones are things that, as a good teacher, you do anyway. However, some parents demand IEP’s and 504’s as ways of “insuring” that their children pass classes, and if they don’t, the parents will come for your head. Since you can expect no sympathy from the staff at your school (these are, after all, legally binding documents) be ready to defend yourself. If you can’t explain how you’ve complied with the requirements of a student’s accommodations, you’ll be hot water, and you don’t need that kind of grief.
PC Myth #2: “Students must be comfortable with their environment to learn.” Horsefeathers! Learning entails growth and change, which demands sweat. You don’t need to purposely embarrass students, but you do need to hold them accountable to high standards. This might take the form of pop quizzes, oral quizzes, or making them re-do poor assignments. If students fail to turn in an assignment and the class is ready to move on to the next one, make the “slackers” do the first assignment before they’re allowed to progress.
As soon as possible before school starts, ask the counselors for a student aide. Every day, have him or her grade at least one set of papers, but make sure it’s something simple: questions from the textbook with concrete answers, or worksheets or quizzes. Don’t give them writing assignments or anything especially creative to grade, or projects. Don’t worry about “having one more kid to babysit;” a good student aide is priceless. Be sure to get him or her something for Christmas and their birthday.
When possible, segregate boys and girls. Separating students by grade level, race, income, etc. is pointless, but separating them by gender always gets academic results. If the teacher next door teaches the same subject, consider collaborating on some lessons, and each of you takes all the students of one gender. Sorry if this offends anyone, but it works.
If some 17-year-old boy enters your class of freshmen, do not sit him next to some 14-year-old girl. Her father thanks you.
Every subject should require a lot of memorizing. Not just names and dates, but entire poems and speeches, etc. You’ll know it’s valuable because they’ll complain bitterly. It’s when students are complacent that you should worry.
A quick turn-around time on returning graded work is a must. If this means grading some assignments on completion (which is OK sometimes, if the nature of the assignment is such that simply doing it necessitates doing it right), so be it. Some assignments can be graded on every other question, etc. As I said before, keep writing assignments short. If students get work back in a timely manner, they’re more likely to care about it. If an assignment comes back after about two weeks and they don’t even remember it anymore, it’s worthless. Only return assignments that a) they’ll need to study, or b) they put a lot of effort into (or should have). Not all work is worth keeping track of.
Keep some blank greeting cards in your desk to scribble notes on for students who need cheering up or special congratulations, etc. Get Thomas Kinkade covers if you can.
When studying a play as a class, do not assign parts and have them read out loud. They’re terrible at it, and it will kill the play. If your department doesn’t have audio performances of the play for them to listen to while they read along, your public library will.
Please, please, please don’t show a lot of videos. Whenever you do, make sure there’s a graded assignment tied into it, even if it’s just listing ten facts from a documentary, or filling in a Venn diagram comparing a film to a novel. No work = no accountability = no learning. I can’t think of any good reason to devote more than three hours per quarter to videos.
Avoid group work. They’ll usually just copy or play around. Or both. People who insist that students need practice “cooperating” and “working with others” are wrong. They already know how to manipulate such systems and blend in. They need practice being focused and responsible. If you do give group work, please make sure that each individual has a specific product or element of the whole for which to be responsible and graded on.
If you’re teaching punctuality, or if you simply want to lessen your load of papers to grade, don’t accept late work. However, if your priority is educating students about the content of your field, then you must learn to deal with it. Of course you’ll only accept it one day late, and for half credit, but even then you should be willing to make exceptions. It’s not fair to you, I know, but if you cared about fair, you wouldn’t be a teacher.
PC Myth #3: “All students can learn.” Well, maybe they can, but many won’t. Everybody loves an underdog, and you’ve probably been inspired by some movie where a misfit teacher doesn’t give up on some slacker with a heart of gold until said slacker unleashes their amazing hidden talent and excels. In the real world, we can’t afford to dwell on those who choose to fail. In any given class, about 5%-15% of the students will be unreachable. Don’t waste your time trying to “save” them. Meanwhile, the majority of your students are getting C’s and D’s when they really should be getting A’s and B’s. Those students, the fat middle part of the bell curve, should be your priority. Teach them.
Administrators might insist that you have your lesson plans ready far in advance, which is pointless. It’s too easy to look a month ahead and plan something so ambitious that it will never work. Then, when that day comes, you’re stuck with a pipe dream that you can’t actually implement. The best lesson plans are written two days in advance. I suggest preparing some pages of generic lesson plans ready to show off at a moment’s notice so they’ll think you’re jumping through their hoops. Life is just too fluid and unpredictable to plan further ahead than that and set details down in stone. Be ready to adapt and improvise!
However, you should plan your year like this: before school starts, chart out which novels, units, projects, major objectives, etc. you want to hit each quarter. As that quarter approaches, add detail to your chart by breaking it down into each of the nine weeks, and add more specific goals and assignments at this time to build toward the major ones you outlined before: this is where you pencil in the smaller assignments that eventually become daily lesson plans. This will make your “two days ahead” planning much easier.
Have routines: every Friday morning is for independent reading, every other Tuesday is for literary response journals, Monday is for grading last week’s work in class and returning it, every Friday at the end of class is for notebook checks, the last two days of the first half of each quarter are for reviewing for unit tests, etc. This will help big time with lesson planning.
Never let students be in your classroom when you’re not there. Lock your door when you’re out.
Mentoring is the ultimate teaching. Model the kind of adult you want your students to become: carry books around with you, don’t swear, discuss world events, etc.
If a student is copying another student’s paper, take both papers and give them zeroes. Do this even if the papers were for another class, and give them to that other teacher. Further punishment than this is not productive.
Post on your board that you will not accept any kind of late work or even discuss grades during the last week of each quarter. This will save your sanity.
Have a file set aside somewhere to put papers with no names on them, for students to look through when they wonder why they got a zero on something “they swear they turned in.” Give them half credit when they find it in there.
Let them prepare an index card of notes to use on major exams. This is about the only way to get them to study.
Fewer projects, more writing. Projects don’t teach nearly as much as we’d like to think they do, and they need more practice writing, anyway.
Wake them up with a warning the first time they fall asleep. Don’t yell or bang anything to do it, just nudge their shoulder with your knuckles.
Cell phones and iPods are evil. Period. Get yourself a reputation as an inveterate hater of all electronic toys in the classroom.
Unless you’re reading out loud to them, there is never a good reason for you to be talking for more than five minutes at a time. If they’re not working hard independently, they’re not learning.
PC Myth #4: “Students must be able to relate to content to understand or care about it.” How condescending! They’re not here to be pandered to, to have their warped, manufactured view of the world reinforced. They’re here to expand their horizons. That means intellectual humility borne of introspection brought on by exposure to challenging new ideas. Shock and awe, baby.
Bloom’s taxonomy is useful for planning assignments, but the “multiple intelligences” theory is not. Every student wants to be a “people-oriented communicator,” and thinks they are…but they aren’t. This world revolves around numbers and written words, and the things that radiate from them, and to the degree that we diverge from that in our training of our students, we do them a disservice.
Keep a journal where you record funny moments in your class, memories of students who genuinely gained something from you, photos of themselves at dances that they give you, and anything else that’s positive. It will save you when you’re ready to tear your hair out.
The perfect balance between professional and approachable behavior is impossible. In general, lean towards more professional. Assume that every student is out to get you; don’t give them anything to use against you. This might appear extreme, but after your first few angry parents, you’ll learn to be cautious.
Most students will need very frequent grade updates to stay at all motivated.
Go into every parent conference armed with copies of updated grade reports, recent samples of the student’s work, and any disciplinary paperwork related to the student. If they have an IEP or 504, bring it and be ready to explain how you’ve complied with it.
If you have a problem with a student, email their other teachers for advice: someone knows how to deal with him. If the student is in ROTC or plays a sport, go to the officers or coaches. They will get you results fast.
Detention is rarely worth it. If you do make a student come in, make them use the time to do homework for your class, or clean your room.
Collect homework as soon as the day starts. Anyone who was “finishing” it after that gets half credit.